What are the different casts in urine and what do they signify?
Urine casts are structures produced by the kidney and are seen in the urine on microscopy in certain diseases states. They are formed in the distal convoluted tubules and the collecting ducts.
The different urine casts are:
- RBC casts: seen in Glomerulonephritis, infarction, malignant hypertension, subacute endocarditis
- WBC casts: pyelonephritis, allergic interstitial nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and infections
- Granular casts: acute tubular necrosis, strenuous exercise
- Hyaline casts: (most common type) dehydration, exercise
- Waxy casts: chronic renal failure
- Fatty casts: nephrotic syndrome
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