Tinospora cordifolia, which is known by the common name Guduchi, is an herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka.
The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It puts out long, slender aerial roots, and is often grown on mango or neem trees. Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Fruits are drupes, turning red when ripe
The active adaptogenic constituents are diterpene compounds, polyphenols, and polysaccharides, including arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP)
A standardized extract from Tinospora known as Tinofend has been studied clinically. One small study in 75 patients with allergic rhinitis showed statistically significant reduction of symptoms compared to placebo. An independent review of this study concluded that "larger and more rigorously designed clinical trials are warranted" for an accurate evaluation of Tinofend's effectiveness.
Tinospora cordifolia and related species such as Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii Boerl are used in Ayurvedic and Jamu herbal medicine. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in reducing the hepatotoxicity which is induced by the combination of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for treating tuberculosis.
According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory, the plant has a long history of use in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as Giloe-ka-sat or as Palo